**Formulae**:

i) Least count of vernier calipers (L.C) = mm,

S = value of 1 Main scale division , N = Number of vernier divisions.

ii ) Total reading = Main scale reading (a) mm + ( n*L.C ) mm

iii) Pitch of the screw =

iv) Least count of Screw gauge (L.C) =

v) Total Reading = P.S.R + ,

P.S.R = Pitch scale reading , n= Corrected Head scale reading , L.C = Least count

vi) Volume of the glass plate V =

l = length of the glass plate, b = breadth of glass plate , h = Thickness of glass plate.

**Procedure** :First we have to determine the least count count of the given vernier calipers.

From the given vernier calipers

S= Length of Main scale division = 1 mm = 0.1 cm,

N = Number of vernier scale divisions = 10 ,

Substitute these values in the formula of Least count L.C = = =0.01 cm.

Draw neat diagram of Vernier calipers

**Part I** : To determine the length ( *l *)and breadth (b) of the given glass plate with vernier calipers :The given glass plate is held between two jaws of vernier calipers, first to measure its length.Note down the values of the Main scale reading (M.S.R ) and vernier coincidence (VC) in Table-I, take 3set of readings by placing the glass plate in 3 different positions.Each time calculate the total reading by substituting the values of M.S.R and VC in the formula Total reading = M.S.R + (.

Find the average of 3readings and calculate Average Length ( *l *)of the given glass plate.

Now hold the glass plate between jaws of vernier calipers breadth wise ,repeat the experiment as above , note down the 3 set of readings of M.S.R and VC in Table-II.Calculate average breadth (b) of the glass plate

**Part II**: To determine thickness(h) of glass plate using Screw gauge:First we have to determine the least count of the given Screw gauge.

Number of complete rotations of the screw = 5

Distance moved by sloped edge over the pitch scale = 5mm

Pitch of the screw = = =1mm.

Number of divisions on the head scale = 100

Least count (L.C) = = =0.01mm

Draw neat diagram of Screw Gauge

**Zero Error** :Now check whether the given screw gauge has any ZERO ERROR or not. To determine the ZERO ERROR, the head H is rotated until the flat end of the screw touches the plane surface of the stud (do not apply excess pressure) i.e we have to rotate the head only by means of safety device ‘D’ only.

When and are in contact,the zero of the head scale perfectly coincides with the index line as in Fig-(a). In such case there will be no ZERO ERROR and no correction is required.

When and are in contact,the zero of the head scale is below the index line as in Fig(b), such ZERO ERROR is called positive ZERO ERROR, and the correction is negative.

When and are in contact,the zero of the head scale is above the index line as in Fig(c) , such ZERO ERROR is called negative ZERO ERROR, and the correction is positive.

When and are in contact,98 th division of head scale is coinciding with index line i.e the zero of the head scale is 3 divisions below the index line as in Fig(b), such ZERO ERROR is called positive ZERO ERROR, and the correction is negative.

The Zero correction for the given screw gauge = - 2

The given glass plate is held between the two parallel surfaces of fix stud and screw tip . Note the completed number of divisions on pitch scale, which is called PITCH SCALE READING (P.S.R). The number of the head scale division coinciding with the index line is noted, which is called OBSERVED HEAD SCALE READING n’. If the given screw gauge has ZERO ERROR (x) the correction is made by adding or subtracting the ZERO ERROR (x) from the OBSERVED HEAD SCALE READING n’.The corrected value (n’-x) or (n’+x) is called the HEAD SCALE READING (H.S.R) n.

To calculate the fraction the H.S.R (n) is multiplied by the least count (L.C).

Diameter of first wire = Total reading = P.S.R + - - - - - - (1)

Changing the position of the glass plate, 3 readings should be taken, and recorded in the table-III. Every time calculate the total thickness (h)of glass plate using equation (1).

Calculate average of 3readings which is average thickness (h) of glass plate.

**Table-I: Length ( l) of the glass plate ** :

S.No | M.S.R a cm | Vernier Coincidence (n) | Fraction b=n*L.C | Total Reading (a+b) cm |

1 | 2.5 | 8 | 0.01*8=0.08 | 2.58 |

2 | 2.5 | 9 | 0.01*9=0.09 | 2.59 |

3 | 2.5 | 7 | 0.01*7=0.07 | 2.57 |

Average length of glass plate (*l)* = = = 2.58 cm

Average length of glass plate (*l)* = 2.58 cm or 25.8mm

**Table-II: Breadth (b)of the glass plate** :

S.No | M.S.R a cm | Vernier Coincidence (n) | Fraction b=n*L.C | Total Reading (a+b) cm |

1 | 1.1 | 4 | 0.01*4=0.04 | 1.14 |

2 | 1.1 | 5 | 0.01*5=0.05 | 1.15 |

3 | 1.1 | 5 | 0.01*5=0.05 | 1.15 |

Average Breadth of glass plate (b*)* = = = 1.15 cm.

Average Breadth of glass plate (b*)* = 1.15 cm or 11.5 mm.

**Table-III: Thickness (h)of the glass plate** :

S.No | Pitch Scale Reading (P.S.R) amm | Observed H.S.R (n’) | Correction (x) | Corrected H.S.R n=n’(+/-)x | Fraction b=n*L.C | Total reading (a+b) mm |

1 | 2 | 75 | 2 | 75-2=73 | 73*0.01=0.73 | 2.73 |

2 | 2 | 74 | 2 | 74-2=72 | 72*0.01=0.72 | 2.72 |

3 | 2 | 76 | 2 | 76-2=74 | 74*0.01=0.74 | 2.74 |

Average Thickness (h) of glass plate (b*)* = = = 2.73 mm.

Average Thickness of glass plate (h) = 2.73 mm.

**Observations : **

i)Average length of glass plate (*l)* = 2.58 cm or 25.8mm

ii)Average Breadth of glass plate (b*)* = 1.15 cm or 11.5 mm.

iii)Average Thickness of glass plate (h) = 2.73 mm.

**Calculations** : Volume of the given glass plate V =

Volume of the given glass plate V = =809.99

**Precautions** :

1) Take the M.S.R and vernier coincide every time without parallax error.

2)Record all the reading in same system preferably in C.G.S system.

3) Do not apply excess pressure on the body held between the jaws.

4) Check for the ZERO error.When the two jaws of the vernier are in contact,if the zero division of the main scale coincides with the zero of the vernier scale no ZERO error will be there.If not ZERO error will be there, apply correction.

5) Pitch scale reading (P.S.R) should be taken carefully without parallax error

6) Head scale reading (H.S.R) should be taken carefully without parallax error

7)Screw must be rotated by holding the safety device ‘D’

8 ) Do not apply excess pressure on the object held between the surfaces and .

**Result **: Volume of the given glass plate is V= 809.99